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Perfectly moist Irish wheaten bread recipe

Perfectly moist Irish wheaten bread recipe

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  • Recipes
  • Dish type
  • Bread
  • Bread without yeast
  • Soda bread
  • Wheaten soda bread

I came up with this recipe for wheaten bread because I really enjoy the density of the bread, but prefer it to be a little less dry. It really is so easy to make and comes out perfectly every time! I hope you will enjoy it too!

806 people made this

IngredientsServes: 10

  • 140g bread flour
  • 350g wholemeal flour
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons salt
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons bicarbonate of soda
  • 2 teaspoons caster sugar (optional)
  • 60g butter
  • 450ml buttermilk
  • 4 tablespoons vegetable oil

MethodPrep:15min ›Cook:1hr ›Ready in:1hr15min

  1. Preheat oven to 200 degrees C (gas mark 6). Lightly flour a baking tray or 23x12cm loaf tin. Sift together the bread flour, wholemeal flour, salt, bicarb of soda, and 2 teaspoons sugar in a bowl. Rub the butter into the flour mixture. Make a well in the centre of the mixture and pour in the oil and buttermilk. Stir with a spatula until dry mixture is completely moistened. Move the dough to a lightly-floured surface. Lightly knead the dough for no more than 1 minute. Shape and place the dough on a baking tray (or into the prepared tin). Cut a cross into the top of the loaf with your finger. Brush the top with milk or buttermilk.
  2. Bake in the preheated oven for 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 180 degrees C (gas 4); rotate tin and bake another 30 minutes.
  3. Allow loaf to cool on a wire rack before slicing.

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Reviews & ratingsAverage global rating:(82)

Reviews in English (75)

A delicious soda bread that came out perfectly textured, not too dense or heavy. Definitely try this recipe!-17 Mar 2009

This may actually be the best bread I've ever had! Deliciously moist, almost doughy inside, but very light and with a lovely crunchy crust. I added 50g of porridge oats and it was lovely. We ate about half the loaf straight out of the oven! So quick to make as well. Two thumbs up!-20 Mar 2010

This was a fantastic bread. I've made numerous brown bread recipes but none compare to this! Moist and tasty and remained fresh tasting for a few days. Love it-17 Jun 2011

Irish Wheaten Bread

This simple Irish Wheaten Bread recipe will help you make your own Irish Soda bread in your own home. It is easy to make and you do not need any special tools or ingredients. It is delicious served up with some salted butter or with other condiments of your choice.

You will notice when you make it that the dough is very thick and dense, thanks to the buttermilk in the wheaten bread mix.

The dough before the oven

What is Irish Wheaten Bread?

There are several Irish bread types. This is one of them.

In the North of Ireland, brown soda bread is commonly known as Wheaten bread.

&lsquoSoda&rsquo bread is bread made with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda or bicarbonate of soda) as the leavening agent. In Ireland, soda bread may be made with white or whole wheat flour, depending on where you are.

This recipe for Wheaten bread uses a mixture of wholemeal (whole-wheat) flour and all-purpose flour with some zapped rolled oats. The buttermilk in the recipe gives the bread its soft moist texture. Baking soda is used as the leavening agent to create a brown wheaten soda loaf that is just delicious.

My mum always has wheaten bread or soda bread in the house stashed away in the freezer as it is readily available in the local supermarkets. Toasted soda bread is always a staple part of our breakfast at my parent&rsquos house.

Toasted soda bread with salted Irish butter

When we lived in the Netherlands it was impossible to obtain soda bread locally, so I used this simple recipe to make it myself. The result is a bread that is perfect to eat warm as an accompaniment to a bowl of soup, or together with some nice mature cheddar cheese and butter.

What to serve with your soda bread

If you ever visit Ireland you will find that homemade brown soda bread is often served up with a full Irish breakfast (an Irish fry) or as an accompaniment to a fish chowder in the pubs and B&B&rsquos. It may also be served together with smoked salmon, which still gets caught and smoked locally.

It is also ubiquitous in the supermarkets so we tend to buy it now rather than make it ourself. Most of the local supermarkets in Ireland have their own soda bread available, often locally made.

My local Tesco&rsquos has &lsquoSheila&rsquos&rsquo bread, which we love. This bread is stored frozen and defrosted before putting on the shelves, to prevent wastage, and you can do the same with these loaves.

Irish soda bread is often very crumbly and can make a bit of a mess when you slice it. But this recipe gives a soft bread that tends to stay together when you slice it, as you can see from these photographs.

So if you happen to be Irish and missing the Emerald isle, all you need to do is bake this recipe and serve it up warm or toasted with some salted butter. Maybe with some seafood chowder to go with it?

Wheaten bread with Seafood Chowder

It will remind you of home.

I hope you have fun making this delicious bread. If you do try this recipe, please let me know how you get on in the comments section below!

Perfectly Moist Irish Wheaten Bread

My husband, a native Northern Irishman, loves this bread with a bowl of tomato and lentil soup or with butter and cheese or jelly. It really is so easy to make and comes out perfectly every time! I hope you will enjoy it too!

Original recipe makes 1 loaf


1 cup bread flour
2 3/4 cups whole wheat flour
1 1/4 teaspoons salt
1 1/4 teaspoons baking soda
2 teaspoons white sugar
1/4 cup margarine
2 cups buttermilk
1/4 cup vegetable oil
1 tablespoon buttermilk
1 teaspoon white sugar


  1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). Prepare a shallow baking pan with cooking spray.
  2. Sift together the bread flour, whole wheat flour, salt, baking soda, and 2 teaspoons sugar in a bowl. Cut the margarine into the flour mixture until pieces are nearly indistinguishable. Make a well in the center of the mixture and pour in the oil and buttermilk. Stir with a spatula until dry mixture is completely moistened. Move the dough to a lightly-floured surface. Lightly knead the dough for no more than 1 minute. Place the dough into the prepared pan pat down and around to form a round loaf. Cut a cross into the top of the loaf with your finger. Brush the top with 1 tablespoon buttermilk sprinkle 1 teaspoon sugar over the top of the loaf.
  3. Bake in the preheated oven for 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C) rotate pan and bake another 30 minutes.
  4. Allow loaf to cool on a wire rack before slicing.


Calories: 275 kcal
Carbohydrates: 37.6 g
Cholesterol: 2 mg
Fat: 11.2 g
Fiber: 4.4 g
Protein: 7.9 g
Sodium: 556 mg

Irish Wheaten Bread

If you’re ever pushed for time and you want a comparatively quick loaf of bread, this Irish recipe is ideal.

It’s the antithesis of sourdough … no starters lurking in the fridge waiting to be fed, no slow fermentation methods, no stretching or kneading. All you need are a few basic ingredients, a bowl, a spoon, a tin and an oven. It’s bread making at its simplest.

Irish friends will probably be rolling their eyes and say they learned how to make it at their grandma’s knee, but for anyone who hasn’t tried it, it’s a winner.

If you want to get fancy you can add two or three tablespoons of seeds, chopped nuts or dried fruit to the mix (great with cheese) and/or sprinkle the top with rolled oats, but it’s good just as it is. I like it with a few slices of smoked salmon with a big bowl of soup or just toasted for breakfast with butter and apricot jam.

Unlike most soda breads this one, from a Paul Rankin recipe, is baked in a tin as the mix is runnier than usual. Once you add the buttermilk, get it in the oven as soon as possible as the bicarb, the raising agent, will start reacting with the liquid straight away.

If you don’t have buttermilk, substitute one tablespoon of lemon juice or white wine vinegar per 250ml of semi-skimmed or whole milk and let it stand for five minutes.

Wheaten Bread

1 1/2 tspn bicarbonate of soda

Pre-heat oven to 200C/400F/Gas Mark 6.

Stir all the dry ingredients together, then stir in the buttermilk to form a dropping consistency.

Pour into a very well-greased 2lb/1kg loaf tin and bake for 1 to 1 1/2 hours, until a skewer inserted into the middle comes out clean.

Turn out of the tin and cool on a wire rack for a crusty exterior or wrap in a tea towel for a softer loaf. Allow to cool before slicing, if you can hold off that long.

Servings 1
Adapted from

Step 1

1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C). Prepare a shallow baking pan with cooking spray.
2. Sift together the bread flour, whole wheat flour, salt, baking soda, and 2 teaspoons sugar in a bowl. Cut the margarine into the flour mixture until pieces are nearly indistinguishable. Make a well in the center of the mixture and pour in the oil and buttermilk. Stir with a spatula until dry mixture is completely moistened. Move the dough to a lightly-floured surface. Lightly knead the dough for no more than 1 minute. Place the dough into the prepared pan pat down and around to form a round loaf. Cut a cross into the top of the loaf with your finger. Brush the top with 1 tablespoon buttermilk sprinkle 1 teaspoon sugar over the top of the loaf.
3. Bake in the preheated oven for 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C) rotate pan and bake another 30 minutes.
4. Allow loaf to cool on a wire rack before slicing.

Traditional Irish Wheaten Bread (Brown Soda Bread)

In Northern Ireland, brown soda bread is made with whole wheat flour and known as wheaten bread in the Ireland, soda bread tends to be made with all-purpose flour. You may also know this as brown bread which in Ireland typically refers to the same thing as wheaten bread in the North. Sometimes you'll find recipes with a combination of whole wheat (also referred to as wholemeal) flour and all-purpose flour.

Nevertheless, soda bread is a quick bread that gets its name because it's leavened with baking soda instead of yeas. Traditionally it would be baked on a hot cast-iron griddle over an open peat fire. The griddled bread would be cooked into a round with an indentation marking the quarters each quarter is called a farl. Today, the bread is baked in the oven with consistent results.

While some recipes for wheaten bread include a couple of teaspoons of sugar and tablespoons of butter, which makes it sweeter and a little richer, this recipe keeps it as simple as possible. When using baking soda, a recipe must include an acidic element for the soda to release gas and allow the bread to rise. In this recipe, buttermilk provides the acidity. You can't substitute regular milk as it isn't acidic enough the bread won't rise.

This is a hearty, nutty bread that's enjoyed sliced with butter, or make a ploughman's lunch by serving the soda bread on a platter with cheese, fruit, and slices of cured meat. Soda bread is also perfect for afternoon tea.

Perfecting Northern Irish Wheaten Bread

Last year for Christmas, Richard and I spent a month traveling (side note – am I the only one who always tries to spell this travelling?) around the UK. We spent time in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, and even drove through Scotland (albeit without stopping) while visiting his family! For some reason, one of the things we remember most is getting stuck in the wind and rain outside of our hotel beside the Giant’s Causeway after a fire broke out. Not exactly the most fun we’ve had, but the reward was worth it!

Giant’s causeway

We were in the middle of a wonderful breakfast at the hotel, when one of the dryers in the laundry caught fire, and we were told we had to go outside right away. Unfortunately it was in the middle of December, and of course we forgot to wear our winter coats to the dining room. After freezing outside for a while, we were brought into the nearby visitor centre to wait until the firemen cleared the building. Luckily nothing was damaged.

a few photos from our trip last winter

As we were checking out after breakfast, they asked us if we had managed to finish our meal before the fire. With the exception of a cup of tea or two, we had, but we asked them if they could do us a favour in lieu of the rest of our meal. Would they be willing to share their wheaten bread recipe with us? I doubted they would as restaurants/chefs aren’t normally known for that sort of thing, but lo and behold, the chef not only gave us the recipe, but a loaf of bread (still warm from the oven) to take with us!

Now, I should just clarify what wheaten bread is for those of you who aren’t familiar. In Northern Ireland, two of the favourite breads (at least where Richard is concerned) are soda bread and wheaten bread – both quick breads made without yeast. Wheaten bread (the proper kind) is a sweet bread, made with a really coarse whole grain flour, normally eaten with some butter or jam (or both!). They can sometimes be shaped in boules but normally baked in tins (it’s a super wet mixture), and they are a bit crumbly due to the flour and lack of gluten development. They remind me a bit of cornbread, in that they are sweetened both by sugar as well as the grain itself.

The wheaten bread at our hotel was the best Richard had ever had, which is why we wanted the recipe so much. Of course, it was written as a chef would, with no temperature, instructions, and to make 12 loaves. I adjusted the recipe to make only 2, and have tried it a few times, trying to make it just like it was back in County Antrim. The key I have found, is that you don’t work the batter too much (just mix until all the dry has been moistened) and use a really coarse whole grain flour (ideally fresh, as whole grain flours can go rancid or lose some flavour sitting around too long). At the end of the day, this whole wheat bread gets a lot of its sweetness from the grain itself, so it’s a pretty important part.

This recipe makes enough for two loaves of bread, in a regular loaf tin. I tend to store it well wrapped up in cling film to prevent it from drying out. It won’t last as long as a regular loaf of bread, but with the thick slices we tend to cut, that’s okay!

Soft Sandwich Buns (Dough Hook Mixer Version)

My entire family absolutely loves these buns with sloppy joes. They hold their shape and don’t fall apart when combined with the ‘juiciness’ of the sloppy joes. I’m not going to buy sandwich buns again. They couldn’t compare to these.

Original recipe makes 14 buns


1 1/4 cups milk (70 to 80 degrees F)
1/4 cup sugar
2 tablespoons butter, softened
3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup bread flour
1 egg, beaten
1 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast
2 3/4 cups bread flour
1 tablespoon butter or margarine, melted


  1. Combine milk, sugar, butter, and salt in small saucepan over medium heat cook and stir until butter melts. Remove from heat and allow to cool to lukewarm.
  2. Combine 1 cup bread flour, egg, yeast, and milk mixture in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook beat at lowest speed for 1 minute. Let rest 5 to 10 minutes. Add 2 3/4 cups bread flour mix at next-to-lowest speed until dough cleans sides of bowl and sticks to dough hook, about 2 minutes.
  3. Place in lightly greased bowl, cover, and let raise in warm place until doubled (about 1 hour).
  4. Turn dough out onto lightly floured surface, punch down to get out air bubbles, and shape into rolls, placing rolls onto 2 lightly greased baking sheets. Cover with waxed paper and let rise for another 45 minutes to 1 hour.
  5. Brush tops of buns with melted butter. Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled, about 1 hour.
  6. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
  7. Bake in preheated oven until lightly browned, 10 to 15 minutes.


Calories: 185 kcal
Carbohydrates: 31.4 g
Cholesterol: 23 mg
Fat: 3.9 g
Fiber: 1 g
Protein: 5.7 g
Sodium: 157 mg

  • 500 g (1lb 2oz) coarse wholemeal flour
  • 125 g (4 1/2oz) plain flour, plus extra for dusting
  • 1 tsp bread soda
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 600 ml (1 pint) buttermilk, plus a little extra if necessary
  • 1 tblsp light brown sugar
  • 1 tblsp melted butter, plus extra butter for greasing and serving
  • 1 tblsp golden syrup
  • 1 tblsp porridge oats
  • Preheat the oven to 200°C (400°F/gas mark 6) and grease 2 x 900ml (1 1/2 pint) loaf tins.
  • Sift the flours, bread soda and salt into a bowl. Make a well in the centre of the dry ingredients and add the buttermilk, brown sugar, melted butter and golden syrup. Using a large spoon, mix gently and quickly until you have achieved a nice dropping consistency. Add a little bit more buttermilk if necessary, until the mixture binds together without being sloppy.
  • Divide the mixture equally between the prepared loaf tins and sprinkle over the porridge oats. Bake for 1 hour, until cooked through and each one has a slightly cracked crusty top, checking halfway through that the loaves aren’t browning too much. If they are, reduce the temperature or move the loaves down in the oven.
  • To check that the loaves are properly cooked, tip each one out of the tin and tap the base. It should sound hollow. If it doesn’t, return it to the oven for another 5 minutes. Tip out onto a wire rack and leave to cool completely.
  • To serve, place the brown wheaten bread on a breadboard and cut into slices at the table. Hand around with a separate pot of butter for spreading.

Perfectly moist Irish wheaten bread recipe - Recipes

Maybe you’re not into bread baking in the heat of summer. In San Francisco, our weather has been in the low 60s most days, so it’s not insane to fire up the oven.

Having returned from Ireland last month, I’ve been struggling with brown bread bread withdrawal. This iconic Irish bread seems to be served everywhere in the Emerald Isle, and it’s consistently good—moist, dense and delicious, without a hint of bitterness.

The brown bread recipe below comes from Ireland’s celebrity chef and TV cooking star Neven Maguire, chef-owner of the MacNean House & Restaurant in Blacklion. County Cavan.

I’ve known Neven through the years, having worked on a few projects together in New York City for my then client, Kerrygold. I’ve always admired his cooking so Steve and I planned our vacation around being able to secure a reservation at his renowned fine dining establishment, which normally books reservations six months in advance.

Warm and gracious, this Irish culinary rock star has turned the small village where he grew up into a dining destination. You experience the impeccable service beginning in the lounge, where sitting comfortably with a drink, you’re presented with Neven’s Signature Tasting Menu to make your dinner selections before entering the dining room.

Everything sounded so delectable, it was a challenge to choose from course to course. Smoked breast of barbecued Thornhill duck with confit leg and foie gras, or seared breast of quail with spring roll and quail lollipop? Parma-wrapped rare breed pork served with caramelized cheek and belly, or fillet of dry aged beef and oxtail gel?

You can imagine the difficulty.

Steve and I negotiated the menu by having one of each and sharing our plates, to taste the widest number of dishes.

Having booked a room at MacNean House, after our brilliant, marathon dinner, we retired to a guest bedroom upstairs, only to awake the next morning to more glorious food—a perfectly sumptuous breakfast buffet of pastries parfaits, cold meats and cheeses, fruit salad and more, along with such made-to-order specialties as eggs benedict, served with Ireland’s famous smoked salmon.

The recipe below is similar to the MacNean Wheaten Bread available at breakfast and featured in the restaurant brochure, a memento each guest receives at checkout, along with a copy of the menu. Please see my baking notes following the recipe.

Neven Maguire’s Multi Seed Wheaten Bread

Rapeseed or sunflower oil, for greasing
1 pound (about 4 cups) all-purpose flour, plus extra for dusting
1 pound (about 3 2/3 cups) coarse wholemeal flour
2 teaspoons baking soda
2 teaspoons salt
4 ounces wheat bran
4 ounces mixed seeds, such as linseed, sunflower, sesame and poppy seeds
4 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons golden syrup or maple syrup
2 tablespoons golden brown sugar
1 3/4 pints (3 ½ cups) buttermilk, plus a little extra if necessary

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F and lightly grease two (4-cup) loaf pans. Sift together the flours, baking soda and salt into a large bowl. Add the bran left in the sieve, the wheat bran and all but 1 tablespoon of the seeds (reserve them for the topping) and stir to combine. Rub in the butter with your fingertips until evenly dispersed.

Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients and add the golden syrup, brown sugar and buttermilk. Using a large spoon, mix gently and quickly until you have achieved a nice, fairly wet consistency being careful to incorporate any pockets of flour.

Divide the mixture evenly between the prepared loaf pans, spreading it evenly and smoothing the tops with the back of a spoon. Sprinkle the tops of the loaves with the reserved tablespoon of the seeds. Bake for about 1 hour or until well risen and cracked on the top and when a skewer comes out clean when inserted in the center.

To check that the loaves are properly cooked, tip each one out of the pan and tap the base. It should sound hollow. Cool in the pans for about 5 minutes before tipping out onto a wire rack to cool completely. To serve, place the brown wheaten bread on a bread board and cut into slices at the table. Pass additional butter for spreading. Makes 2 loaves.

  • Irish flours are different from American flours and you can buy Irish flours online. However, I used unbleached all-purpose flour and for the wholemeal flour, I used Bob’s Red Mill 100% stone ground whole wheat flour. While I couldn’t taste the bread side by side against the authentic Irish version, the taste and texture seemed as good.
  • Instead of 4 ounces of wheat bran, I used 2 ounces ground flaxseed (1/2 cup).
  • If you don’t have a scale, here are measurements for the amount of mixed seeds I used, to give you some guidance: I used ¼ cup plus 2 teaspoons sunflower seeds, ¼ cup pumpkin seeds and 2 tablespoons sesame seeds, which weighed 3 ½ ounces total.
  • I added 1½ tablespoons of rolled oats to the reserved seeds to sprinkle on top of the bread before baking.
  • This bread should stay fresh and moist for two days, after which it will dry out and at that point, is best toasted. Use the bread for open-faced sandwiches or slather with butter and jam for breakfast. (Of course, I used Kerrygold pure Irish butter.)

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Wheaten Croissants

A well-made croissant has a crisp crust and a somewhat flaky crumb that is soft but never doughy. Croissant is actually the missing link between puff pastry and brioche. Take puff pasty dough, add some yeast, and you have croissant dough. Take brioche dough, add as much as almost double the butter, replace the eggs with milk, and you have the makings of croissant dough. Some people think of a croissant as a pastry, others as a bread. Most don’t think much about it at all, they just eat it with great pleasure. Since this recipe first appeared in The Pie and Pastry Bible, I have received countless e-mails from home bakers eager to make the dough but unable to find the “reduced-bran whole wheat” called for. I used that flour because it offers a sweet, slightly nutty flavor and beautiful golden color without the bitterness of heaviness of texture of 100 percent whole wheat flour. Reduced-bran flour, available commercially in large quantities, is simply whole wheat flour with most (98 percent) of its sweet, flavorful germ still in it but only 20 percent of its bran—just enough to add flavor intensity without bitterness. Once I investigated flour mill in depth, I realized that it’s a simple matter to add this amount of germ and bran back to white flour to make your own reduced-bran flour! This recipe makes it possible. In fact, since I am adding the coarse bran and germ separately, I incorporate them into the butter package. The butter coats their sharp edges and helps to keep them from cutting through the gluten network of the dough. Of course, if you prefer a traditional croissant, just omit the germ and bran. Now that high-fat European-style butter is nationally available to home bakers, it makes it a lot easier to produce quality croissants. Because the butter is more pliable even when cold, it’s easier to roll the dough. I also find I pefer the lighter texture of a croissant dough made with less of this rich butter. Classic croissants are given a total of four turns (business letter folds). But if the butter starts breaking through the dough, it’s fine to stop after three turns you will still have plenty of flaky layers. The fact that the butter breaks through the dough layers is what makes the croissant so much more tender than puff pastry where the butter layers remain perfectly moist. Rectangles of Wheaten Croissant dough wrapped around small rectangles of bittersweet chocolate make a delectable variation on the traditional white-flour pains au chocolat. They are most delicious when eaten still warm from the oven when the chocolate is still slightly melted. Of course, they can be reheated to achieve this same effect. Use your favorite bittersweet chocolate. I prefer a milder chocolate, not one that is too bittersweet, as it would contrast too sharply with the dough.

Notes Pointers for Success:

Higher-fat European-style butters, such as Vermont Cultured butter, Plugra, or Land O’ Lakes “ultra” butter, contain less water than our regular butter so they stay pliant in the dough even when cold. Vermont Cultured butter contains 86 percent fat, the highest butterfat of all American brands. Because it is “cultured,” it has a lower pH level (higher acidity), which makes it especially soft and pliant, ideal for rolling into the dough without breaking through the layers.

Flour with too high a protein content (over 12.5 percent) makes it harder to roll the dough and results in a chewy texture. It is also important not to knead the dough to the point where it becomes very elastic, as with each rolling and folding it becomes more stretchy and harder to roll.

If you have a Cuisinart mini processor, you can reduce the size of the bran and germ by processing them with the 1 tablespoon of the flour before adding it to the butter.

If you prefer to use dry milk instead of liquid milk, substitute 3 tablespoons (1 ounce/ 30 grams) dry milk plus ¾ liquid cup (6.25 ounce/ 177 grams) water.

You can use up to 9 ounces/ 255 grams butter. It’s easier to roll the dough if you use the smaller amount listed in the recipe. I prefer the lighter texture it gives the croissants, and the flavor is still very buttery.

A tutove (ridged) rolling pin can be used, for added ease in rolling, for the first four turns, after which the dough layer becomes too thin, and the butter could break through.

Make each turn after 40 minutes of chilling, but no longer. If the dough is too cold, when you roll it, the outside of the dough softens while the center remains firm, which makes it hard to roll and destroys some of the layering. Once you have completed all the turns, however, the butter is evenly dispersed in thin sheets so the dough stays evenly pliant.

Brush off all loose flour when rolling, and keep the unused dough covered to avoid crusting, which would cause separation of the rolled layers during baking The inside of the croissant should consist of numberous little open cells with no visible striations.

If the room is cool (68°F or under), it is desirable to leave the rolled dough covered on the counter for up to 30 minutes to relax before the final shaping.

After cutting the dough triangles or rectangles, you can set them on a baking sheet, cover them tightly with plastic wrap, and refrigerate for several hours, or up to overnight. Remove them from the refrigerator and allow them to soften four about 10 minutes before shaping them. Alternatively, you can shape them set them on the baking sheets, cover them tightly with plastic wrap, and refrigerate them. Allow them to rise until doubled before baking.

Although a tightly rolled croissant with the classic 7 distinct sections is attractive, I find that the texture is lighter and better if they are not rolled too tightly.

After proofing and egg glazing the croissant (so your fingers won’t stick to the dough), to get a more pronounced curve, very gently recurve the ends inward.

Unbaked croissant dough can be refrigerated for 2 days. Baked croissants or pains au chocolat can be held at room temperature for a day or frozen for several months. Reheat them in a preheated 300°F oven for 5 minutes (8 minutes if frozen).

If you have cushioned cookie sheets or enough to stack one on top of the other to make a double-layered baking sheet, it helps keep the bottoms of the croissants or pains from getting too brown.

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