When people find out that I write this blog they usually ask me two questions. What’s my favorite restaurant (currently The Grocery) and have you been to… and they name their favorite place.
In the course of about two weeks five people have mentioned Two Boroughs Larder, a restaurant that opened last August just outside of King Street. All of them have said, “You’d love it there.” So this was our restaurant of choice for a quick bite before a neighborhood event this evening.
The restaurant is easy to find on Coming Street but parking is next to nothing. We circled a few times and then found a spot. We were lucky because it was Saturday and the Residential Parking only is lifted.
About the name which to me is a bit confusing. They are close to two Boroughs in Charleston, Cannonborough and Elliotborough. Okay, that part is pretty easy, but what’s with the Larder? In sleuthing a “Larder” on Webster.com was defined as a “Cooling area to store food prior to use. Larders were commonplace in houses before the widespread use of refrigerators. Mystery solved. Interesting stories but nowhere in the restaurant were these fun facts displayed and I think that could add value to your visit.
One site called the design of the restaurant “Industrial Chic” which I thought is spot on. Refurbished wood and steel are creatively used to form tables, their “Family Table”, the bar and its stools. Kitschy, but it works very well.
The owners also are all about sourcing local foods and respecting the food that they source, which is nothing new here in the Low Country, but still appreciated.
On this lazy Saturday we walked in for a very late lunch and there were a few people seated in the various tables. We were told to sit where we wanted and got a great table by the window. Our server quickly stopped by.
No generic “diet coke” at this place. I ordered a crafted lo-cal root beer and my husband got a Mexican Coca-Cola. ‘Don’t know why the funky drinks, but they were good nonetheless.
There were two menus on the day we arrived. A small, five item brunch menu and their regular, all-day menu. Both were very interesting. No meat and potatoes at this place!! The menu is a unique combination of creative and just over the edge.
We took the recommendation of our server who recommended the Carbonara (only served with Brunch), and the Chicken Skin Fried Rice. How unique is that??
And then we waited. And waited. I don’t know how we get so lucky but with so few people in the restaurant, three line cooks on in a very tiny kitchen (visible from the dining room), why would lunch ever have to take 30-35 minutes?? It did though, unfortunately.
When it finally arrived the server said, “The kitchen says their sorry for the delay.” Thank you, I thought, but after all this time this lunch better rock.
The Chicken Skin Fried Rice with Szechuan peppercorns, fried farm egg, Palmetto sweets, Mepkin Abbey mushrooms, peanut puree, Carolina Gold Rice and Togarashi (a Japanese Chili Sauce) was outstanding. Crispy skins mixed with dark meat chicken and richly seasoned. A real treat. Then there was my dish.
Check out more details about Two Boroughs Larder and a dish-by-dish breakdown of the meal at Dining Around Charleston.
Larder beetles enter homes through open doors or cracks in walls during the late summer and fall to escape cold weather. They overwinter near food sources, particularly in kitchen pantries.
How Serious Are Larder Beetles?
When larder beetles gather in hundreds or thousands, damage can become significant. While they can harm home support structures in very rare cases, their most costly damage stems from food and animal-product contamination.
When it's time for larvae to pupate, they can bore into the nearest materials including:
Larder beetles don't bite humans or spread disease, but their presence is bothersome and unsanitary.
Signs of Infestation
Common signs of larder beetle infestation include:
How Do I Get Rid of Larder Beetles?
Controlling larder beetles requires thorough inspection and cleaning. The objective is to find the source of the infestation and remove anything infested. Some control and prevention measures include:
- Inspection: Check for infested fur or animal trophies. Examine garages and storage rooms for infested pet food or animal feed. It's also a good idea to inspect bird or animal nests in attics, wall voids, and crawlspaces.
- Sanitation: Discard any infested packages found in kitchen cabinets or pantries and vacuum empty shelves.
- Storage practices: Store food products in sealed containers.
Inspection and cleaning are critical parts in solving most larder beetle infestations. Insecticide is used for eliminating any beetles that are changing into adults. The insecticide will be effective if it is applied into the cracks and crevices at the back of the shelves and behind the baseboard. To avoid misapplication or misidentification, it is preferable to call your local pest control professional.
Orkin can provide the right solution to keep larder beetles in their place and out of your home or business.
Behavior, Diet, & Habits
When they invade a home, larder beetles move into dark areas where they can find food. They prefer to feed on:
- Dead insects
- Dry pet food
- Stored meat
Larder beetle populations increase rapidly, as females lay over 100 eggs at a time. These beetles lay eggs in the spring and summer. When the eggs hatch, the larvae burrow into nearby food material. The larvae mature to pupae and then adults in two or three months.
When they change into adults, the larvae leave the food and burrow into a solid material. Then, they make a small chamber and seal themselves inside.
Review : The Larder on Goosegate restaurant
A couple of weeks ago we visited The Larder to celebrate Lee’s 30th birthday. It was a thundery rainy Thursday and we walked, damp and hungry, in to the sounds of Stormy Weather by Billie Holiday.
The story behind The Larder is quite fascinating (if you love local history!). It was the second Boots The Chemist store (the first one was up the road at 6 Goosegate which is now a Sainsburys) and was revolutionary in that it was the first shop ever to be glass-fronted so that customers could see the products inside.
The building itself is now retail units downstairs, but the character and history of the original Boots store is retained upstairs where The Larder on Goosegate restaurant is located.
We started with some complementary tomato bread and grissini
And I went for deep-fried sprats with lime mayo for my starter – there was a fairly narrow choice of starter’s on the lunch menu, especially when you strip out one’s that contain beef/pig/sheeps, so I went for these although I’ve had trouble eating them before due to squeamishness. I managed to eat a few of them and they were delicious – piping hot and freshly cooked – but their little faces got to me after a while! Lee had ham terrine for his starter, which was obviously homemade and looked great!
Main courses and Lee had a prime rump steak served with chips and salad – his steak looked absolutely fantastic and he reported that it tasted great too. The Larder uses grass-fed, Aberdeen Angus beef that has been reared to strict welfare conditions – it’s always great to see restaurants that source meat that has been raised ethically!
I went for the puy lentil Shepard’s Pie with rosemary gravy. I didn’t have sky-high hopes for this meal, but it was amazing. The flavoursome lentils were topped with cheesy mashed potato and the whole thing was infused with the flavour of rosemary – just delicious – for veggies or non-veggies! I’ll be making this meal soon at home – it will hopefully be relatively easy to recreate!
Because it was Lee’s birthday, he got a free birthday dessert! With a chocolate brownie, some apple tart, a chocolate cupcake and a macaron! He loved all his desserts
I had to go for a dessert too…. I was torn by the great selection on the menu and I went for a warm chocolate brownie with ice cream and caramalised walnuts in syrup. It was lovely – clearly home-baked and very chocolatey and satisfying.
Here I am enjoying my meal – The Larder is open for lunch between 12 and 2.30pm and was quiet when we visited – us and one other couple were there. Despite that, their was still a lovely atmosphere and it felt like we had the place to ourselves and enjoyed taking our time for a relaxing meal which I find it difficult to do in a very busy and noisy restaurant. The service was also brilliant – attentive but unobtrusive.
We had three courses each, plus a bottle of Prosecco and a couple of other drinks, and the bill came to just under £60, which I thought was exceedingly good value for the quality of the food. We will definitely be returning – it’s a thoroughly charming place! And it’s great to see non-chain, local restaurants that focus on turning local, quality ingredients into delicious meals!
If you’re in the Nottingham area – check out more reviews of The Larder here, and check out their most recent menu’s on their website here.
During pre-Roman times, most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Corieltauvi people. The language of the area at that time would have been Common Brittonic, the precursor to modern Welsh. The name Lincoln was derived from Lindum Colonia.
Large numbers of Germanic speakers from continental Europe settled in the region following the withdrawal of the Romans. Though these were later identified as Angles, it is unlikely that they migrated as part of an organized tribal group.   Thus, the main language of the region quickly became Old English. However, it is possible that Brittonic continued to be spoken in some communities as late as the eighth century. 
Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", and it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book. Later, the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln. This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south-east, and the Parts of Kesteven in the south-west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations.
In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven each received separate ones. These survived until 1974, when Holland, Kesteven, and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire.
A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside. The land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police they are in the Yorkshire and the Humber region.
The remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, Lincoln, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, and West Lindsey. They are part of the East Midlands region.
The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale it was one of the largest earthquakes to affect Britain in recent years.
Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor, birthplace and home of Sir Isaac Newton. He attended The King's School, Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill when he was a youth.
Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Jurassic limestone (near Lincoln) and Cretaceous chalk (north-east). The area around Woodhall Spa and Kirkby on Bain is dominated by gravel and sand.  For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, and most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have also been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur.  
The highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top (168 m, 551 ft), at Normanby le Wold.  Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level. The nearest mountains are in Derbyshire.
The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, and the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 km (82 miles) through the middle of the county, eventually emptying into the North Sea at The Wash. The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is also fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is also the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse.
Lincolnshire's geography is fairly varied, but consists of several distinct areas:
- : area of rolling hills in the north-east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty : dominating the south-east quarter of the county
- The Marshes: running along the coast of the county
- The Lincoln Edge or Cliff: limestone escarpment running north–south along the western half of the county
Lincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas [ citation needed ] , as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet fenland (see The Fens).
From bones, we can tell that animal species formerly found in Lincolnshire include woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, wild horse, wolf, wild boar and beaver.   Species which have recently returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite.  
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Lincolnshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional gross value added |
|Agriculture [a]||Industry [b]||Services [c]|
Notable businesses based in Lincolnshire include the Lincs FM Group, Young's Seafood, Openfield and the Lincolnshire Co-operative (whose membership includes about one quarter of the population of the county).
Lincolnshire has long been a primarily agricultural area, and it continues to grow large amounts of wheat, barley, sugar beet, and oilseed rape. In south Lincolnshire, where the soil is particularly rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include potatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, and onions. Lincolnshire farmers often break world records for crop yields.   South Lincolnshire is also home to one of the UK's leading agricultural experiment stations, located in Sutton Bridge and operated by the Potato Council Sutton Bridge Crop Storage Research engages in research for the British potato industry. 
The Lincoln Longwool is a rare breed of sheep, named after the region, which was developed both for wool and mutton, at least 500 years ago, and has the longest fleece of any sheep breed.  The Lincoln Red is an old breed of beef cattle, originating from the county. In the mid 20th century most farms in Lincolnshire moved away from mixed farming to specialise in arable cropping, partly due to cheap wool imports, partly to take advantage of efficiencies of scale and partly because the drier land on the eastern side of England is particularly suitable for arable cropping.
Mechanization around 1900 greatly diminished the number of workers required to operate the county's relatively large farms, and the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector dropped substantially during this period. Several major engineering companies developed in Lincoln, Gainsborough and Grantham to support those changes. Among these was Fosters of Lincoln, which built the first tank, and Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham. Most such industrial companies left during late 20th-century restructuring.
Today, immigrant workers, mainly from new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe, comprise a large component of the seasonal agricultural workforce, particularly in the south of the county. Here more labour-intensive crops are produced, such as small vegetables and cut flowers. This seasonal influx of migrant labour occasionally causes tension between the migrant workforce and local people, in a county which had been relatively unaccustomed to large-scale immigration. Agricultural training is provided at Riseholme College and in 2016 the University of Lincoln opened the Lincoln Institute for Agri-Food Technology.
Westminster Parliamentary constituencies Edit
Lincolnshire is represented by 11 Members of Parliament (MPs). As of the 2019 general election, all 11 constituencies are represented by the Conservative Party. One constituency, Brigg and Goole, contains part of the East Riding of Yorkshire around the towns of Goole and Snaith.
|2019 general election: Lincolnshire|
|348,325 (66.0%) |
|120,808 (22.9%) |
|35,049 (6.6%) |
|10,564 (2.0%) |
|13,271 (2.5%) |
|Overall numbers of seats as of 2019|
|Boston and Skegness||Boston, East Lindsey||Matt Warman||Conservative|
|Brigg and Goole||North Lincolnshire (plus part in East Riding of Yorkshire)||Andrew Percy||Conservative|
|Cleethorpes||North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire||Martin Vickers||Conservative|
|Gainsborough||West Lindsey, East Lindsey||Edward Leigh||Conservative|
|Grantham and Stamford||South Kesteven||Gareth Davies||Conservative|
|Great Grimsby||North East Lincolnshire||Lia Nici||Conservative|
|Lincoln||Lincoln, North Kesteven||Karl McCartney||Conservative|
|Louth and Horncastle||East Lindsey||Victoria Atkins||Conservative|
|Scunthorpe||North Lincolnshire||Holly Mumby-Croft||Conservative|
|Sleaford and North Hykeham||North Kesteven, South Kesteven||Caroline Johnson||Conservative|
|South Holland and The Deepings||South Holland, South Kesteven||John Henry Hayes||Conservative|
Lincolnshire County Council Edit
The Conservatives control the county council, with 58 of the 70 seats. North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are unitary authorities and do not form part of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire.
2009 election Edit
The Conservative Party comfortably controlled the County Council after the 2009 local elections, in which they increased their majority to 43 seats. The Labour Party lost a total of 15 seats including 7 in Lincoln, whilst the Liberal Democrats lost three. The Lincolnshire Independents gained a total of four seats, although one of their number moved to the Conservative group during 2010, increasing the number of Conservative seats to 61. The collective group of the Lincolnshire Independents, the Boston Bypass Party and other independent councillors formed the opposition for the four-year term.
2013 election Edit
In the 2013 County Council elections, the Conservatives lost their overall majority and formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and independents. The UK Independence Party made significant gains from the Conservatives, particularly around the town of Boston, due to opposition to Eastern European immigration. 
UKIP were initially the main opposition party with 16 councillors, but six members broke away to form a separate group, UKIP Lincolnshire. 
2017 election Edit
The 2017 Lincolnshire County Council election took place on 4 May 2017 and saw a local landslide victory for the Conservatives, who won 58 out of the 70 seats. UKIP was left without a single seat. Labour lost four seats, reducing their number of seats to six, the Liberal Democrats were reduced to one seat, and the Lincolnshire Independents were also reduced to a single seat after losing eight seats. Four other independents were elected.
1975 EC membership referendum Edit
The 1975 EC membership referendum was the first major referendum to be held in the county, and saw one of the largest majority votes in favour of continued membership of the then European Communities (which would later become the European Union) within non-metropolitan Lincolnshire and also Humberside, which then included northern parts of historic Lincolnshire. The referendum was held on 5 June 1975 with votes within the county being centrally counted under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Do you think that the United Kingdom should stay in the European Community (the Common Market)?” by voting for either “Yes” or “No”. The result was declared on the following day.
- The result above only includes non-Metropolitan Lincolnshire as parts of historic northern Lincolnshire made up part of Humberside at the time.
2011 AV referendum Edit
The 2011 United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum was the first to be held in Lincolnshire since the 1975 EC membership referendum and was only the second time that the people of Lincolnshire have been asked to vote in a referendum. The referendum asked voters whether to replace the present "first-past-the-post" (simple plurality) system with the "alternative vote" (AV) method for electing MPs to the House of Commons in future general elections. The proposal to introduce AV was overwhelmingly rejected by voters with all eight counting areas within Lincolnshire returning significant "no" votes.
The seven shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.
|Counting areas||Turnout %||No votes||Yes votes||No %||Yes %|
|North East Lincolnshire||34.23||29,484||9,549||75.54||24.46|
2016 EU membership referendum Edit
On 23 June 2016, in the EU referendum, the people of Lincolnshire voted for the second time on the issue of the UK's continued membership of what is now known as the European Union under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 where voters were asked to decide on the question “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union” by voting for either “Remain a member of the European Union” or “Leave the European Union”. Of the ten MPs which represented the historic county at the time six MPs Andrew Percy, Martin Vickers, Edward Leigh, Karl McCartney, Stephen Phillips and John Hayes supported a "Leave" vote with five MPs Matt Warman, Nick Boles, Victoria Atkins, Melanie Onn and Nic Dakin supported a "Remain" vote. 
The seven shire-districts and two unitary authorities in Lincolnshire were used as the voting areas.
|Voting areas||Turnout %||Remain votes||Leave votes||Remain %||Leave %|
|North East Lincolnshire||67.9%||23,797||55,185||30.1%||69.9%|
Police and Crime Commissioners Edit
The most recent elections for Police and Crime Commissioners within the Lincolnshire and Humberside police force areas took place on 5 May 2016.
Lincolnshire Police Edit
Humberside Police Edit
According to an Intra-governmental Group on Geographic Information (IGGI) study in 2000,  the town centres were ranked by area thus (including North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire areas):
Lincolnshire is one of the few counties in the UK that still uses the 11-plus to decide who may attend grammar school. As a result, many towns in Lincolnshire have both a grammar school and a secondary modern school. Lincolnshire's rural character means that some larger villages also have primary schools and are served by buses to nearby high schools.
Lincoln itself, however, is primarily non-selective, as is the area within a radius of about seven miles. In this area, almost all children attend comprehensive schools, though it is still possible to opt into the 11-plus system. This gives rise to the unusual result that those who pass the Eleven plus can attend a Grammar School outside the Lincoln Comprehensive area, but those who do not pass still attend a (partly non-selective) Comprehensive school.
Being on the economic periphery of England, Lincolnshire's transport links are poorly developed compared with many other parts of the United Kingdom. The road network in the county is dominated by single carriageway A roads and local roads (B roads) as opposed to motorways and dual carriageways – the administrative county of Lincolnshire is one of the few UK counties without a motorway, and until several years ago, it was said that there was only about 35 km (22 mi) of dual carriageway in the whole of Lincolnshire. The M180 motorway passes through North Lincolnshire, splitting into two dual carriageway trunk roads to the Humber Bridge and Grimsby, and the A46 is now dual carriageway between Newark-on-Trent and Lincoln.
The low population density of the county means that the number of railway stations and train services is very low considering the county's large area. Many of the county's railway stations were permanently closed following the Beeching Report of 1963. The most notable reopening has been the line and two stations between Lincoln and Sleaford, which reopened within months of the Beeching closure. Most other closed lines in the county were long ago lifted and much of the trackbed has returned to agricultural use.
Prior to 1970, a through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King's Cross via Louth, Boston and Peterborough. The part of this line in Grimsby is now the A16 road, preventing reinstatement as a railway line, and a small section of the line is now the Lincolnshire Wolds Railway, with an extension towards Louth in progress.
A daily through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King's Cross via Grimsby, Market Rasen and Lincoln Central until the late 1980s. The Humberlincs Executive, as the service was known, was operated by an InterCity 125, but was discontinued following the electrification of the East Coast Main Line. Passengers now have to change trains at Newark North Gate when travelling to and from London. However, the East Coast Main Line passes through the western edge of the county and one can catch direct trains to London from Grantham.
Most rail services are currently operated by East Midlands Railway and Northern Trains. London North Eastern Railway and CrossCountry have services which pass through the county, with London North Eastern Railway frequently passing and stopping at Grantham on the East Coast Main Line and a serviceevery other our to Lincoln, while CrossCountry trains stop at Stamford on their way between Birmingham and Stansted Airport. Stations along the Humber are served by TransPennine Express services between Manchester Airport and Cleethorpes. One of the most infrequent services in the UK is in Lincolnshire: the Sheffield-Gainsborough Central-Cleethorpes line has passenger trains only on a Saturday, with three trains in both directions. This line is, however, used for freight.
On 22 May 2011 East Coast started a Lincoln-London service, initially one train a day each way, and there is a northbound service on a Sunday. This was increased in 2019 to a service every two hours. East Midlands Railway also run a daily (Mon-Sat) service each way between Lincoln and London St Pancras, though this is a stopping service which takes around three hours via Nottingham, compared to London North Eastern Railway's service to London King's Cross which takes around 1 hour 50 minutes.
The only airport in Lincolnshire is Humberside Airport, near Brigg. East Midlands Airport the main airport servicing the East Midlands is within travelling distance of the county. Doncaster Sheffield Airport near Doncaster is within travelling distance of much of Lincolnshire.
The county's biggest bus companies are Stagecoach Grimsby-Cleethorpes (formerly Grimsby-Cleethorpes Transport) and Stagecoach in Lincolnshire, (formerly Lincolnshire Road Car). There are several smaller bus companies, including Brylaine of Boston, Delaine Buses and Hornsby's of Scunthorpe. 
A Sustrans cycle route runs from Lincoln to Boston in the south of the county. 
Health care Edit
The United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust  is one of the largest trusts in the country, employing almost 4,000 staff and with an annual budget of over £200 million. The north of the county is served by the Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.
Some of the larger hospitals in the county include:
Since April 1994, Lincolnshire has had an Air Ambulance service.  The air ambulance is stationed at RAF Waddington near Lincoln and can reach emergencies in Lincolnshire within 25 minutes. An A&E hospital is only 10 minutes away by helicopter from any accident in Lincolnshire.
Lincolnshire is now the second fastest growing county in the UK with thousands of people moving there every year. Over the next two decades, Lincolnshire is set to grow both in population and economy with the help of the Government's Growth Points strategy. Lincolnshire has been awarded £13 million in funding to deliver sustainable development and intensive growth through sites of key regional significance. In essence, the target for Lincoln is 14,000 new homes and 12,000 new jobs by 2026 whilst the target for Grantham is an additional 3,200 homes by 2016 and at least 6,200 by 2026. This housing growth will be supported by the provision for 4,800 jobs by 2016.
The non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire has no major urban areas, apart from the areas in and around Lincoln, Grantham and Boston and to a lesser degree around Spalding. However, the Skegness, Ingoldmells and Chapel St Leonards areas (and to a lesser extent the Sutton-on-Sea and Mablethorpe areas) along the Lincolnshire coast are becoming increasingly urbanised, as people holiday at large caravan sites during the summer. These holidaymakers are not reflected in census or local population figures, though it is estimated that at the height of the summer months there are over 100,000 such residents in these coastal areas. This has an appreciable impact on the local infrastructure and amenities.
A small part of the Thorne Waste area of the town of Thorne in South Yorkshire, known as the Yorkshire Triangle, currently falls under North Lincolnshire.  
|Largest settlements in Lincolnshire by population|
|Rank||City/ Town||District/Unitary Authority||Population|
|2||Grimsby||North East Lincolnshire||88,243|
|6||Cleethorpes||North East Lincolnshire||39,505|
For a more detailed list of the largest populated towns see the List of settlements in Lincolnshire by population page.
For a full list of Lincolnshire towns and villages see the List of places in Lincolnshire page.
The majority of tourism in Lincolnshire relies on the coastal resorts and towns to the east of the Lincolnshire Wolds. The county has some of the best-known seaside resorts in the United Kingdom, which are a major attraction to visitors from across England, especially the East Midlands and parts of Yorkshire. There are three main coastal resorts in Lincolnshire and several smaller village resorts.
The main county seaside resort of Skegness with its famous Jolly Fisherman mascot and famous slogan "Skegness is so bracing", together with its neighbouring large village coastal resorts of Ingoldmells and Chapel St Leonards, provides the biggest concentration of resorts along the Lincolnshire Coast, with many large caravan and holiday sites. The resort offers many amusements, beaches, leisure activities and shops, as well as Butlins Skegness, Fantasy Island, Church Farm Museum, Natureland Seal Sanctuary, Skegness Stadium, Skegness Pier and several well-known local golf courses. There are good road, bus and rail links to the rest of the county.
The second largest group of resorts along the coast is the small seaside town of Mablethorpe, famous for its golden sands, and the neighbouring village resorts of Trusthorpe and Sutton-on-Sea. This area also offers leisure activities and has large caravan and holiday sites. But the area is less developed, with fewer amusement arcades and nightclubs, and poorer road links to the rest of the county but the area offers a more traditional seaside setting. The rail service to these towns was axed in the Beeching cuts.
The third group of resorts includes the seaside town of Cleethorpes and the large village resort of Humberston within North East Lincolnshire. It has the Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway and Cleethorpes Pier along with its local golf courses and caravan and holiday sites, whilst it is also the former site of Pleasure Island Family Theme Park. Cleethorpes is well-served by road and rail it is easily accessible from the M180 and the TransPennine Express route to Manchester.
Nature is an attraction for many tourists: the south-east of the county is mainly fenland that attracts many species of birds, as do the national nature reserves at Gibraltar Point, Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe and Donna Nook, which also contains a large grey seal colony which is popular with visitors.
The market towns of the Lincolnshire Wolds (Louth, Alford, Horncastle, Caistor and Spilsby) are also attractive, with several having historically important buildings, such as Alford Manor House and Bolingbroke Castle. The Wolds are popular for cycling and walking, with regular events such as the Lincolnshire Wolds Walking Festival.
Lincolnshire is a rural area where the pace of life is generally much slower than in much of the United Kingdom. Sunday is still largely a day of rest, with only shops in Lincoln, larger market towns, and resorts and industrial towns of the North Sea coast generally remaining open. Some towns and villages in the county still observe half-day closing on Thursdays. Due to the large distances between the towns, many villages have remained very self-contained, with many still having shops, pubs, local halls and local chapels and churches, offering a variety of social activities for residents. Fishing (in the extensive river and drainage system in the fens) and shooting are popular activities. A lot of the culture in Lincoln itself is based upon its history. The Collection is an archaeological museum and art gallery in Lincoln. Lincoln Cathedral also plays a large part in Lincoln's culture, playing host to many events throughout the year, from concert recitals to indoor food markets.
A Lincolnshire tradition was that front doors were used for only three things: a new baby, a bride, and a coffin. 
Lincolnshire is one of the least ethnically diverse counties of the United Kingdom (98.5% of the population describe themselves as "white"). 
Those born in Lincolnshire are sometimes given the nickname of Yellowbellies (often spelt "Yeller Bellies", to reflect the pronunciation of the phrase by the typical Lincolnshire farmer). The origin of this term is debated, but is most commonly believed to derive from the uniform of the 10th Regiment of Foot (later the Lincolnshire Regiment) which featured yellow facings. For this reason, the coat of arms of Lincolnshire County Council is supported by two officers of the regiment. 
Tatties and Neeps
How could something with such an interesting little name fail to be totally delicious . . .
If you have swede, and potatoes in your larder . . . you have the makings of this most tasty Scottish dish. And, I can assure you . . . it goes with just about any type of meat or poultry. Actually the Scots usually eat this with haggis on Robbie Burns Night . . . and we all know what that is . . . so . . .
It's very basic, and very simple and apparently was something that was eaten frequently by poor crofters up in the Scottish Highlands . . .
Oh well . . . I've been told in the past that I am common . . .
Perhaps my love of this dish proves it.
My mother always made this, ceptin we called it mashed turnips. I never knew we were eating something as exotic as Tatties and Neeps. A rose by any other name eh?
*Tatties and Neeps*
Pretty basic. Pretty tasty. Yum, yum!
1 lb potatoes (You want a nice and floury type, such as a Maris Piper)
1 tablespoon chopped chives
1 lb. neeps (depends where you come from whether you call them turnips or swedes)
1 heated tablespoon of butter or dripping
salt and pepper to taste
Peel the potatoes and cut into chunks. Place in a pan of lightly salted water and bring to the boil. Cook for 15 minutes or so until tender. Drain well.
Peel the swede and cut into small chunks. Place in a pan of lightly salted water and bring to the boil. Cook for 15 to 20 minutes until quite tender. Drain well.
(I usually cook the two things at the same time so that they are hot at the same time, starting the swede a bit before the potatoes)
Place the cooked potato and the swede into the same pan and mash them very well together, adding salt, pepper and butter. Stir in the chopped chives. Serve hot.Marie Rayner
Drink of the Week: Winter Cocktail - A, by Adam Douglas at the Arvada Tavern
Mikey Honeck is Making a Cocktail Named After You at Brazen
Waking the Dead With a Spicy Cocktail at Leña
Forgy&rsquos favorite, the one we stopped in to try on a snowy February afternoon, is called Sword of Protection, which contains Old Overholt rye whiskey, brown sugar, absinthe, and black walnut bitters.
Sword of protection is a version of a Sazerac cocktail, traditionally made with rye, sugar, absinthe and bitters. Forgy played with that recipe a little, using a brown sugar simple syrup and a smoked ice cube.
&ldquoOld Overholt is a nice rye whiskey,&rdquo Forgy says. &ldquoIt&rsquos got a little bit of an earthy note to it. It&rsquos not overly sweet, or overly dry, it mixes well." Produced since 1810, Overholt is a slightly strong, somewhat minty rye whiskey that is a good brand to start with if you&rsquore just getting into ryes. &ldquoA lot of ryes on the market are a little more pronounced, a little more punchy,&rdquo Forgy adds. &ldquoI think Old Overholt is right in the middle. It lends itself well to other ingredients.&rdquo
Making the cocktail his own, Forgy substitutes two traditional Sazerac ingredients. Instead of the white sugar used in a traditional Sazerac, Forgy makes a brown sugar syrup, which he uses to sweeten the whiskey. He also uses black walnut bitters, instead of the age-old Peychaud&rsquos bitters.
Forgy loves his black walnut bitters. &ldquoWhen you mix them with the brown sugar simple, the rye and the absinthe,&rdquo he says, &ldquoit brings a sort of caramel or maple flavor to the drink. It just works.&rdquo
Absinthe is present in his cocktail and, like the original, it&rsquos used a just a quick rinse to the inside of the chilled glass. Forgy uses absinthe from Denver distillers Leopold Brothers.
&ldquoThe absinthe is more of an aromatic, and it does impart a touch of flavor,&rdquo Forgy says. &ldquoWe&rsquore playing with different ingredients, but it&rsquos definitely a riff on a classic.&rdquo
After the ingredients are stirred with ice, Forgy pours them over a smoked ice cube. To make the ice he fills a pan with water and places it in a smoker, leaving it there for about 40 minutes, where it takes on flavors from smoldering pecan wood. Later, he pours the ice into molds, and then freezes it into cubes.
&ldquoThe smoked ice cube will melt, so ten or fifteen minutes from now,&rdquo he explains, &ldquothat drink is going to be completely different than it was, because the smoke will open up into your nose, and add a touch of flavor.&rdquo
That smoky cube leads Forgy to recommend pairing his drink with Block & Larder&rsquos bone-in pork chop ($22). &ldquoIt&rsquos wood-grilled over the same pecan wood,&rdquo he explains, &ldquothen finished in the oven and served with a sweet mustard glaze. The cocktail is sweet and smoky, and the pork is sweet and smoky.&rdquo
The same smoke runs through both your cocktail and your dinner, the same way that the He-Man cartoon theme touches all his original cocktails. &ldquoI approach a cocktail menu just trying to have fun with it,&rdquo he explains. &ldquoI like to play with fun ingredients. Our whole cocktail program is based on classic cocktails with a twist. It&rsquos fun, it&rsquos whimsical, we&rsquore just trying to give people things that are good, and approachable but still adhere to classic cocktail-making principles.&rdquo
But Forgy has deep roots with He-Man, stretching back to those days when he had collected all the action figures. &ldquoI had Castle Grayskull, I had Panthor, I had Battle Cat,&rdquo he says, laughing. &ldquoI had all the characters. Basically, my whole room was full of He-Man stuff when I was a kid. It was pretty fun. I did have He-Man pajamas at one point.&rdquo
Still, his list is based on respected classics, and he&rsquos no cartoon character. &ldquoI&rsquove done a lot of reading,&rdquo he says. &ldquoI&rsquove done a lot of experimenting. I&rsquove been to a lot of bars. I&rsquove seen a lot of things. I just like to have fun with it. I don&rsquot like to be pretentious about it.&rdquo
Sword of Protection
2 oz. Old Overhold rye whiskey
.5 oz. brown sugar simple syrup
2 dashes Fee Brothers Black Walnut bitters
Stir all ingredients, and strain into a chilled rocks glass which has been rinsed with Leopold Brothers Absinthe, over a smoked ice cube. Garnish with a lemon peel.
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Notes from the Larder: A Kitchen Diary with Recipes
I have been cooking along out of this gorgeously-written Nigel Slater tome for the past 6 months as part of I Heart Cooking Clubs. If you need a clear and direct recipe or photos in your cookbook, you may not love this book as much as I do. But, if you are like me and like to savor the writing in cookbooks like a novel and love to work with "sketches" of recipes, you will adore this book. I keep it on my nightstand and open it up and just read, as well as cook from it. Set up by month to follow I have been cooking along out of this gorgeously-written Nigel Slater tome for the past 6 months as part of I Heart Cooking Clubs. If you need a clear and direct recipe or photos in your cookbook, you may not love this book as much as I do. But, if you are like me and like to savor the writing in cookbooks like a novel and love to work with "sketches" of recipes, you will adore this book. I keep it on my nightstand and open it up and just read, as well as cook from it. Set up by month to follow a year in the kitchen, it is a treasure trove of Nigel Slater's thoughts and wonderful food writing.
So far I made (and loved): Needs, Must Pasta (a simple and amazing fettuccine Alfredo): http://kahakaikitchen.blogspot.com/20. , Pasta with Creamy Basil-Caper Sauce (I keep making the sauce for pasta and fish and to top soup): http://kahakaikitchen.blogspot.com/20. , the intoxicating and addicting version of Bánh Mì (aka 'Sour, Hot, Crisp, Soft. A Sandwich for the Senses'): http://kahakaikitchen.blogspot.com/20. , a scrumptious lemon compound butter for fish: http://kahakaikitchen.blogspot.com/20. , and delightful Little Green Onion & Ricotta Omelettes with Asian Dipping Sauce: http://kahakaikitchen.blogspot.com/20. and I loved them all.
The problem with checking Nigel Slater cookbooks out from the library is that I need time to really digest them. Though my natural inclination is to race through his books in a single sitting, I try to take them in small portions, a few pages (or meals) at a time, in order to maximize the pleasure of his writing, and the meals I imagine him eating, and the meals I imagine making as a result of my enjoyment of reading about them.
Alas, this time taking it slow has resulted in fines. That&aposll teach The problem with checking Nigel Slater cookbooks out from the library is that I need time to really digest them. Though my natural inclination is to race through his books in a single sitting, I try to take them in small portions, a few pages (or meals) at a time, in order to maximize the pleasure of his writing, and the meals I imagine him eating, and the meals I imagine making as a result of my enjoyment of reading about them.
Alas, this time taking it slow has resulted in fines. That'll teach me to just buy the dang book next time. . more
This very weighty tome is a kitchen diary offering many observations, facts, happenings and of course over 250 different seasonal recipes from acclaimed British food writer and broadcaster Nigel Slater.
Would it be fairer to describe this book as a more edited, polished memory dump from the author, providing a little bit of everything along the way that is wrapped around a diary? The author is clear to note that whilst items follow over the course of a year, they are not a strict chronology but m This very weighty tome is a kitchen diary offering many observations, facts, happenings and of course over 250 different seasonal recipes from acclaimed British food writer and broadcaster Nigel Slater.
Would it be fairer to describe this book as a more edited, polished memory dump from the author, providing a little bit of everything along the way that is wrapped around a diary? The author is clear to note that whilst items follow over the course of a year, they are not a strict chronology but more a focussed collection of events that have happened over the years, so something that happened on a given November day would have happened on that given day, but not necessarily in the same year as the previous or subsequent diary "entry". Not that it makes a difference in the grand scheme of things though!
This is a book that, to be fair, you will get as much out of it as you put in through reading and comprehension. If you use the book solely as a source of recipes then, whilst you will invariably find many interesting recipes from the sheer multitude on offer, you will be missing much by ignoring the surrounding text.
When browsing through this book one notes that whilst the recipes have been "translated" to U.S. imperial units, at the same time ignoring their metric equivalencies, there are many cultural references that might have non-native Britons scratching their head in puzzlement before seeking clarification to a small, possibly insignificant point. There are a number of average to relatively good photographs to break up the text but they just don't feel like they fit, feeling instead that they are there solely as filler material to "illustrate" the book. Technically the photographs are quite good, particularly when they accompany a recipe yet many just feel out of place. It would have been better to have had smaller photographs accompanying EACH recipe and then use a few hand-drawn illustrations if one did need a "barrier" or "filling" image. A small thing that doesn't detract from the overall delight of this book, but when you pay a premium price for something one becomes invariably more picky over the smallest of things.
The end of the book featured a very detailed index to the recipes, referenced by key ingredient) which is a Godsend when you see the sheer bulk of this book. It would have been nice if each chapter (month) had a separate list of the recipes within to help navigate as the internal signposting is quite sparse… but it was not to be. Even a mini index to some "key happenings" or traditions would have been appreciated.
This book was an enjoyable gambol throughout a typical "year" of a British food writer and active cook. If you have enjoyed other books by this author then you won't be disappointed but if the name Nigel Slater doesn't mean anything to you, it could also be a good introduction to his work, his viewpoints and style - and after that there is no shortage of other Nigel Slater books to keep you occupied for a long time.
Notes from the Larder: A Kitchen Diary with Recipes, written by Nigel Slater and published by Ten Speed Press. ISBN 9781607745433, 545 pages. Typical price: USD40. YYYY.
// This review appeared in YUM.fi and is reproduced here in full with permission of YUM.fi. YUM.fi celebrates the worldwide diversity of food and drink, as presented through the humble book. Whether you call it a cookery book, cook book, recipe book or something else (in the language of your choice) YUM will provide you with news and reviews of the latest books on the marketplace. // . more
Oh Nigel, you&aposve done it again. where would I be without you?!
So far I have tried:
- sea bass with rosemary and capers: delicious! A romantic meal with my boyf, who had never had sea bass before. We cooked one bigger fish instead of two, and it worked out wonderfully.
- parsley risotto: didn&apost do the parmesan crisps that go along with this, and as I already know how to make risotto I just looked at how he included the parsley - very clever idea to boil the stalks in with the stock to include the Oh Nigel, you've done it again. where would I be without you?!
So far I have tried:
- sea bass with rosemary and capers: delicious! A romantic meal with my boyf, who had never had sea bass before. We cooked one bigger fish instead of two, and it worked out wonderfully.
- parsley risotto: didn't do the parmesan crisps that go along with this, and as I already know how to make risotto I just looked at how he included the parsley - very clever idea to boil the stalks in with the stock to include their flavour. I also added some left over chicken from the same bird as the stock, but the risotto would have still been lovely without it.
- bacon and celeriac soup: all that grating takes aaaaages (I will probably just chop the celeriac into chunck next time, as it gets blended) but it is mostly worth it. and think of your arm muscles!
- Marmalade chocolate ice cream: delicious but i did run into some problems. Nigel says it can be churned by hand or in a machine, but I'm afraid it just *wouldn't* churn in the machine, I tried several times then resorted to hand. I think this is because of the marmalade, which Nigel says gives a soft scoop texture. but it also lowers the freezing point!
What I love about both Nigel's Diaries is that they are simply wonderful, inspiring reads. Even when I don't follow the exact recipes pretty much every page gives me a new idea to include in my cooking. Thanks to Nigel, I've started putting salt in my porridge, and oh my gosh you would not believe the difference it makes!
As the year comes to a close and we start on the path toward longer days and the coming of springtime, there can be no better book to curl up with than Nigel Slater&aposs, “ Notes from the Larder, A Kitchen Diary,” published this fall in the United States. The cookbook received Amazon’s and Food and Drink&aposs Book of the Year Award in the United Kingdom.
For anyone not familiar with Mr. Slater, he is a self-described “writer who cooks.” A true Englishman who loves his garden and the seasonal pleasures As the year comes to a close and we start on the path toward longer days and the coming of springtime, there can be no better book to curl up with than Nigel Slater's, “ Notes from the Larder, A Kitchen Diary,” published this fall in the United States. The cookbook received Amazon’s and Food and Drink's Book of the Year Award in the United Kingdom.
For anyone not familiar with Mr. Slater, he is a self-described “writer who cooks.” A true Englishman who loves his garden and the seasonal pleasures of its bounty, Mr. Slater finds joy in calmly reworking recipes until they finally come together in a way that he deems fitting for that particular day, or moment in time: “What intrigues me about making something to eat is the intimate details, the small, human moments that make cooking interesting.”
Mr. Slater is a BBC television series presenter and documentarian. He is author of eight cookbooks and a memoir, “Toast, “ which was recently made into a major BBC film. As the weekly food columnist with “The Observer Magazine” for over twenty years, Mr. Slater has a large and well-deserved loyal following. You can find his recipes and photographs of his food and garden at www.nigelslater.com.
For me, the lovely muted photographs from both the kitchen and the garden were worth the price of the book. But it is his words, and his thorough enjoyment of the essence of the ingredients and how they come together, often quite simply, that create the true magical images set out on each page. . more
I loved, loved, loved Slater&aposs Kitchen Diaries. In fact, it is next to my sink where I look at it every few days to keep myself seasonally inclined for cooking. And, of course, for inspiration.
When I saw that there was a second Kitchen Diary, it was at the perfect time. Just got another freelance job. So a little treat is in order. Right? Well, that&aposs how it works in MY checkbook!
This doesn&apost have the complete charm of the original, but is still quite good. I&aposm reading along month-by-month I loved, loved, loved Slater's Kitchen Diaries. In fact, it is next to my sink where I look at it every few days to keep myself seasonally inclined for cooking. And, of course, for inspiration.
When I saw that there was a second Kitchen Diary, it was at the perfect time. Just got another freelance job. So a little treat is in order. Right? Well, that's how it works in MY checkbook!
This doesn't have the complete charm of the original, but is still quite good. I'm reading along month-by-month so it will take a year before I'm done.
Done! I stand by my statement above that it doesn't match the first Kitchen Diaries book. However, it is quite good and I have about 15 recipes marked to try out. A good deal of the charm, of course, is in Slater's poetic, evocative writing which is enjoyable whether one wishes to actually cook from this book or not.
Stacked next to the bathroom sink as a bit of daily food reading before bed. Quite satisfying to reread this way and it serves the purpose of keeping me thinking seasonally. Love that. And Slater's "normal person" sensibilities. . more
I&aposve got a confession to make. I&aposm in love with Nigel Slater&aposs cooking and his recipes and he could come to my home and be my kitchen slave forever. Needless to say, despite ogling his dishes on the television, I bought his books. Well, I bought two: The Kitchen Diaries: A Year in the Kitchen (2005) and The Kitchen Diaries 2 (2012). Not only are they filled with great recipes but, importantly to me, the text in between the recipes is engagingly descriptive and effortlessly witty.
Nigel Slater is I've got a confession to make. I'm in love with Nigel Slater's cooking and his recipes and he could come to my home and be my kitchen slave forever. Needless to say, despite ogling his dishes on the television, I bought his books. Well, I bought two: The Kitchen Diaries: A Year in the Kitchen (2005) and The Kitchen Diaries 2 (2012). Not only are they filled with great recipes but, importantly to me, the text in between the recipes is engagingly descriptive and effortlessly witty.
Nigel Slater is my kind of cook as his recipes are straight-forward, easy to understand, and generally use ingredients that are either already in our cupboards, fridges and freezers, or readily available to most of us. I suppose I fell in love with Nigel's cookery skills by watching his television programmes. He has such a relaxed way about him, such an ordinary way of speaking to the viewer, such a no-nonsense approach to cooking, that he convinced me absolutely that 'I can do that'. Which actually remains to be seen, of course. His Kitchen Diaries books are like that. They are far more than just recipe books. They are, as they state, diaries. The narrative from the author, Nigel Slater, is almost poetic with descriptions of his garden, the plants, the weather, the shops that he frequents, the produce that he so loves. You can sit and happily read these books as if they were simply delightful novels that paint vivid pictures with words. They are treasures to be cherished. Really.
" April 17. " Could there ever be the perfect day? Maybe not, but today is as close as it gets. Bright sunshine and cool breeze, the scent of wallflowers and narcissus on the air a farmers' market with sorrel, young pigeons and good rhubarb, and an afternoon so hot and sunny you could fry eggs on the pavement. I gave in and bought my first tomatoes too, a vine or two of the early Campari. "
As sometimes is the case with writers publishing a second book some years later, the recipes are not, in this case, a repetition of the first book with a few changes and really just ripping off the buyer. The paper quality is very good in both books, as are the plentiful coloured photographs (by Jonathan Lovekin) of the dishes. There is not, however, one photograph per recipe which might disappoint some but this doesn't really matter to me as Nigel's instructions are so very clear and there are so many recipes to enjoy that I don't think it would have been feasible to have a photo for each one. If I were to have one tiny complaint it is that the photographs have no caption so you have to match the recipe to the image, but the recipe is not far away and generally it is quite obvious at a glance. Nigel Slater has divided his book up into months although not necessarily one recipe for each day of the month, and there is an index at the back too if you are looking for a recipe that uses a particular ingredient. The 2005 book has 400 pages and the 2012 book has 544 pages in all. With regard to the 2005 book, I bought the paperback (for the sake of economy) and my 2012 book is the hardback version which has a nice satin ribbon for keeping one's place in the book. Both were at a great discount through Amazon. When I went to purchase them the older 2005 book, in the hardback version, was actually a lot more expensive than the hardback of the 2012 book, but I don't mind buying paperback books, especially quality ones. . more
8.3.1 Learning objectives
By the end of this practical you should be able to:
- Create descriptive plots (histograms and boxplots) to help understand the frequency distributions of your data
- Write custom functions to process your data
- Produce a location quotient map to highlight interesting (above and below average) patterns in your data
- Write a function in R to produce a range of different maps based on user inputs
- Perform a very basic cluster analysis and output the results of a basic geodemographic classification
8.3.2 Getting Started
Before we begin this week’s practical, we need to load our packages and carry out some data preparation…
There is a problem with our London Wards data — we are missing some data relating to housing tenure. The housing tenure data in this file comes from the 2011 Census and visiting http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/ and interrogating Table KS402EW (the Tenure table), we can discover that data for the percentage of shared owners and those living in accommodation rent free are missing.
Rather than making you go off to Nomisweb and fetch this data, because I’m really nice, I’ve posted on GitHub a file containing this and extra categorical, ratio and geographical data that we will need to add to our existing London data file. To download this consult How to download data and files from GitHub, i’d used Option 1 and it’s the prac8_data folder you want to download.
We can easily join this new data to our original data in R.
8.3.3 Main Tasks
8.3.4 Task 1 - Descriptive Statistics
Using the lecture notes for guidance, you should generate the following graphs and descriptive statistics using standard functions and ggplot2 in R. Each element should be copied and saved to a word document or something similar:
Generate the following from your LondonWardsSF data frame:
- A simple histogram for a scale/ratio variable of your choice
- A simple histogram for a scale/ratio variable of your with a different frequency bin-width
- The same histogram with vertical lines for the mean, median and mode (the mode will be the mid value for the bin with the largest count) and the inter-quartile range. hint – use summary(table$variable) to find the values if you are not sure
- The same histogram with three different kernel density smoothed frequency gradients
To change which group we are plotting, simply alter the filter() argument.
Make a note of which variables appear normally distributed and which appear to be skewed. What do the histograms for nominal and ordinal data look like?
Try performing a log10() transformation on the x variables and plotting a similar facet grid of histograms –– what does this do to some of the skewed variables? For example…
- Create a 2D histogram and 2D kernel density estimate of ward centroids in London using the Eastings and Northings data in the x and y columns of your dataset. For example:
8.3.5 Extension 1
If you really want to go down the road of carrying out KDE in a range of different ways, then this Kernel Density Estimation tutorial — perhaps try it with some of the Blue Plaques data from previous weeks.
8.3.6 Task 2 - Function to recode data
In the lecture, it was mentioned that sometimes we should recode variables to reduce the amount of information contained in order that different tests can be carried out on the data. Here we will recode some of our scale/ratio data into some nominal/weak-ordinal data to carry out some basic analysis on.
A function to recode data in our dataset might look like the one below:
8.3.7 What’s going on in this function?
First we initialise a new variable called newvar and set it to = 0. We then define a new function called recode . This takes in 4 pieces of information: A variable (called variable but I could have called it anything) and three values called high , medium and low . It outputs a value to the new string variable newvar based on the values of high, medium and low that are given to the function.
To create the function in R, highlight the all of the code in the function and then run the whole block (ctrl-Return in R-Studio). You will see that the function is stored in the workspace.
We can now use this function to recode any of our continuous variables into high, medium and low values based on the values we enter into the function.
We are going to recode the Average GCSE Score variable into High, Medium and Low values – High will be anything above the 3rd Quartile, Low will be anything below the 1st Quartile and Medium – anything in between.
Note, if your data doesn’t have the 2013 GCSE scores but 2014, it will have different figures to these figures below and you will need to call the column by the column header you have
Create a new column in your data frame and fill it with recoded data for the Average GCSE Score in 2013. To do this, pass the AvgGCSE2013 variable to the recode() function, along with and the three values for high, medium and low. You should create a new variable called gcse_recode and use the function to fill it with values
If you wanted to be really fancy, you could try altering the function to calculate these “High,” “Medium” and “Low”
You should also create a second re-coded variable from the unauthorised absence variable using the same function – call this variable unauth_recode and again, used the 3rd and 1st quartiles to define your high, medium and low values.
On to another function. This time, we will calculate some location quotients for housing tenure in London. If you remember, a location quotient is simply the ratio of a local distribution to the ratio of a global distribution. In our case, our global distribution will be London.
The two functions above calculate the same Location Quotient, but the first one works on variables which have already been converted into row percentages, the second will work on raw variables where an additional column for the row totals is stored in a separate column – e.g. “age 0-15,” “age 16-64” and “age 65 plus” all sum to the “Pop2013” column in our data London Wards data set:
Calculate Location Quotients for the 5 Housing tenure variables (Owner Occupied, Private Rent, Social Rent, Shared Ownership, Rent Free) in your data set using either of the functions above. Save these as 5 new variables in your dataset. *Hint – use the function to create the variable directly, for example:
8.3.8 Task 3 – Mapping Location Quotients
You should now try and create a map or series of maps of your housing tenure location quotients using tmap or ggplot . Try to create a map by referring back earlier practicals in this course and follow the steps from there (or, indeed, use your memory)
8.3.9 Task 4 – Creating a Basic Geodemographic Classification
As we saw in the lecture, geodemographic classifications are widely used to classify areas according to the characteristics of the population that inhabits them. All geodemographic classifications are created using cluster analysis algorithms. Many of these algorithms exist, but one of the most commonly used is k-means.
One of the pitfalls of these algorithms is that they will always find a solution, whether the variables have been selected appropriately or standardised correctly. This means that it’s very easy to create a classification which is misleading.
All of that said, it is useful to see how straightforward it is to create a classification yourself to describe some spatial data you have.
In a cluster analysis, you should select variables that are:
To make this task easier, we will just select two variables to make our classification from. In a real geodemographic classification, hundreds of variables are often used.
Let’s make our k-means find 3 clusters with 25 iterations. The graphics below by Allison Horst will help explain the process…
Now let’s get out cluster means using tidy() from the tidymodels package. Tidy creates a tibble that summarizes the model.
Then plot them and then add them to our London wards…
Now of course this is just the most basic of classifications, but you can easily see how you could include more variables or different variables to create a different classification - this is perhaps something you could try.
I haven’t even gone into using different clustering algorithms, how to decide on the appropriate number of clusters, using silhoutte plots to assess the strength of the clusters or creating pen-portraits using the variable z-scores for each cluster - this is practically a whole course in its own right… or indeed a dissertation topic!
5 of the Highlights on the Xiao Bao Biscuit Menu
And then those Brooklynites will have the food and feel like they’ve found the right place. As many a Xiao Bao Biscuit regular will tell you, the Okonomiyaki will change your life. This is a savory pancake made of vegetables. At Xiao Bao Biscuit, this is made of shredded cabbage, with carrots, kale, and scallions mixed-in. The top is drizzled with Japanese mayonnaise and sriracha. You also get the option of adding other toppings such as a runny egg, bacon, or Japanese pork candy (go with the egg and pork candy on top, and thank me later).
Other fantastic options include the Mapo Dou Fu, a spicy Sichuan dish made of tofu cooked in chili oil with broad beans and served over rice. Another favorite is the Chili Cumin Lamb stir fry with cilantro, black beans, and radish. While both these dishes come from China, there are plenty of other choices from other parts of Asia. Vietnam dishes appear in Bahn Mi Tom Quet Noung, or Viet-style shrimp toast with pickled chili, herbs, cabbage, and nuoc cham. Featured Thailand cuisine includes Pork Noodle, or pulled pork with pork skin noodle and an herb salad. The Pork Noodle is a great example of East meets South on the menu.
The drinks at Xiao Bao Biscuit are just as interesting as the food. With a more interesting selection of non-alcoholic beverages than many other restaurants in Charleston, SC, Xiao Bao Biscuit suits varied tastes. Those looking for a low-key evening can enjoy a Coconut Milk Drink, Mexican Coke, or Lemongrass Ginger Beer among other options. Those wishing to imbibe can toast the evening with a wine selection from France, a beer selection from around the corner (Westbrook One Claw) and around the world (Chang from Thailand), or one of their signature mixed drinks. Borneo Sunrise, featuring white rum, orange flower water, pomegranate molasses and fresh pressed juice, was a favorite at the table. The lunch, dinner, and drink menus are all available on the website of Xiao Bao Biscuit.
Cauliflower Steaks with Miso & Sesame Dressing
This delicious recipe for Cauliflower Steaks with Miso & Sesame Dressing was first posted back on 2 March 2015! It's still a great recipe all these years later, however I've updated it to little to have the option to make it more like the classic aubergine Miso Dengaku, just made with cauliflower instead!
So now you have two equally delicious options.
- Roast the cauliflower & use the original posts miso & sesame dressing to drizzle over at the end. This would be the perfect option as a make ahead & eat for a picnic. (original slightly dodgy photo below!)
2.Roast the cauliflower & use the more classic 'Dengaku' miso sauce as a glaze, which gets returned to the oven for a final blast of heat before serving. This would be delicious as a warm dish to serve as part of a larger feast!
Both Cauliflower with Miso options are equally delicious, so you can try both.
The humble Cauliflower has been having a 'thing' recently, and I'm not ashamed to say that I have jumped on the bandwagon with it. Whilst I'm yet to replace my pasta or rice with the 'cauliflower' version, I'm a fully paid up member of the 'bake it in the oven' brigade. Because, as I have discovered, a brassic oven baked, is a most delicious thing and can be entirely devoured in one sitting.
Brassicas, the family of vegetables that we onced loved to hate. Cabbages, kale, broccoli, brussel sprouts to name just a few. and cauliflower. Pretty, white & bland cauliflower.
Cauliflower used to be much maligned as a boring, watery vegetable, mostly because the cauli we grew up with was boiled to death and then smothered in lumpy cheese sauce or served as a pathetic grey mush as part of a roast dinner. ewwwwww. I remember eating cauliflower raw as a child and wondering why, if it was so nice raw, that we had to eat it mushily cooked.
Fortunately, times have changed. The powers of t'interwebs, especially Pinterest have allowed us to share great ideas (and some not so inspired ideas) such as, that oven baking cauliflower with some herbs & spices and oil until it turns golden and a bit crispy is FREEEKING DELICIOUS .
I've done a post before on oven baked cauli.. you can find it here..
But this time, I had a huge craving for Japanese food.. specifically Aubergine with Miso, which is one of my favourite Japanese dishes, but A) It's not aubergine season and B) I really needed to use up a cauliflower I'd bought. So, as we all know, necessity is the mother of invention. Or, in my case, greed and guilt. I can't and won't waste food. But I WANTED that miso dressing. So, this delicious miso dressing with sesame came about. And it was delicious.
Whichever way you choose to make Cauliflower Steaks with Miso & Sesame Dressing, it's so easy and delicious, I'm sure you'll make it again and again!
Watch the video: Pick a Card - ΠΑΝΣΕΛΗΝΟΣ!!! Ποιοι Κύκλοι Ζωής Κλείνουν Οριστικά και Ποιοι Εξελίσσονται? (December 2021).